Deprivation index, Canada, 2016

This Canadian deprivation index was created using data from the 2016 Canadian Census for each dissemination area.

There are four versions for Canada: one for Canada as a whole, one for each Canadian region, one for metropolitan areas, and one for certain geographic areas defined on an urban-rural gradient. Each version can be explored using the different tabs. Each tab gives a brief description of that version of the index and includes a number of data tables, which divide the Canadian population by age and sex for both material and social deprivation.

Each tab also provides the information that is common across all scales of analysis. An equivalence table makes it possible to link between dissemination areas, certain geographical territories, and the deprivation indexes. An assignment program (SAS language only) is also available to allow the user to integrate the material and social deprivation index into administrative files or even into their analyses provided that the files in question contain a six-digit postal code (mandatory) and a municipal code (optional). This program comes with a user guide.

Canadian variations of the deprivation index

The national index makes it possible to estimate the geographic scale and distribution of material and social inequality across Canada. All dissemination areas in Canada are compared to one another and Canada as a whole is the reference area. This means that it is possible to compare the socioeconomic situation of a group of people living in one province or territory with that of another group living elsewhere in the country.

The national deprivation index is the result of a principal component analysis (PCA) carried out on a national scale and a distribution of deprivation values observed in Canada in quintiles (each quintile representing 20% of the population), from the most privileged (Quintile 1) to the most deprived (Quintile 5).

Population by age and gender, Canada

Quintiles

Material deprivation

Social deprivation

Material and social deprivation

 

Regional variations of the deprivation index

The regional material and social deprivation index reflects the variations observed within each of the five major Canadian regions: Atlantic, Québec, Ontario, the Prairies, and British Columbia. The Atlantic region includes Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. The Prairies includes Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. The three Canadian territories were not included in the calculation of Canadian regional variations.

The regional indexes are the result of PCAs carried out in each region separately and a distribution of deprivation values observed in each region in quintiles (each quintile representing 20% of the population), from the most privileged (Quintile 1) to the most deprived (Quintile 5). This version makes it possible to observe the deprivation variations in each region and compare the regions based on their relative variations. In other words, to compare people within each region, but not between regions.

Population by age and gender, and by Canadian region

Quintiles

Material deprivation

Social deprivation

Material and social deprivation

 

Deprivation index variations by geographic area

The deprivation index for geographic areas shows the variations observed within the following four Canadian territorial entities:
1. The three largest census metropolitan areas (CMAs) grouped together (Montréal, Toronto, Vancouver)
2. The other CMAs (between 100,000 and 1,000,000 people)
3. Census agglomerations (between 10,000 and 100,000 people)
4. Small towns and rural communities (less than 10,000 people)

The indexes for geographic areas are the result of PCAs carried out in each region separately and a distribution of deprivation values observed in each area in quintiles (each quintile representing 20% of the population), from the most privileged (Quintile 1) to the most deprived (Quintile 5). This version makes it possible to observe the deprivation variations in each geographic area and compare the areas based on their relative variations. In other words, to compare people within each geographic area, but not between geographic areas.

Population by age and gender, and by geographic area

Quintiles

Material deprivation

Social deprivation

Material and social deprivation

 

Deprivation index variations by Canadian metropolitan area

The metropolitan material and social deprivation index shows the variations observed within each of the three largest CMAs in Canada: Montréal, Toronto, and Vancouver.

The metropolitan deprivation indexes are the result of PCAs carried out in each CMA separately and a distribution of deprivation values observed in each CMA in quintiles (each quintile representing 20% of the population), from the most privileged (Quintile 1) to the most deprived (Quintile 5). This version makes it possible to observe the deprivation variations in each CMA and compare the CMAs based on their relative variations. In other words, to compare people within CMAs, but not between CMAs.

Population by age and gender, and by metropolitan area

Quintiles

Material deprivation

Social deprivation

Material and social deprivation

 

Deprivation index assignment program

User Guide of the 2016 Canadian Deprivation Index Assignment Program

SAS program for the assignment of the 2016 Canadian deprivation index

Table of equivalence between dissemination/enumeration areas and the different geographic territories

The table of equivalence between dissemination areas and the different Canadian territories (provinces, regions, CMAs, and geographic areas) contains the following information:

  • The dissemination area number
  • The dissemination area population
  • Codes of each territory (provinces, Canadian regions, Census Metropolitan areas (CMAs), and geographic areas)
  • The PCA factor scores for the two aspects of deprivation
  • The material and social quintiles of the variations for the different territories (provinces, regions, CMAs, and geographic areas)
  • The material and social centiles of Canadian variations (provinces)

Equivalence table, Canada, 2016

 

How to cite the index : Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ) from 1991, 1996, 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016 Canadian Census data. Index of material and social deprivation compiled by the Bureau d'information et d'études en santé des populations (BIESP). [https://www.inspq.qc.ca/en/expertise/information-management-and-analysis/deprivation-index]