Social and community development

  • September-11-13

    On assiste actuellement, tant dans le réseau de la santé et des services sociaux que dans d'autres secteurs, à un intérêt grandissant au développement des communautés, durable ou local, ce qui suscite notamment une volonté grandissante d'actions intersectorielles et de travail en partenariat. Pour se réaliser, ces nouvelles façons de faire doivent pouvoir s'appuyer sur une compréhension commune de la situation. Dans la plupart des régions, plusieurs organismes produisent des portraits de populations (pour alimenter leur plan d'action) qui répondent à des logiques et des intérêts différents. Cependant, ces portraits ne permettent généralement pas de connaître la situation à l'échelle des communautés locales et n'incluent pas d'analyse qualitative de la dynamique de chaque collectivité,...

  • September-11-13

    Le présent rapport présente les résultats de l'évaluation du processus d'implantation du dispositif de caractérisation des communautés dans la région de la Chaudière-Appalaches. Après un bref survol du contexte d'expérimentation du projet de caractérisation des communautés locales (chapitre 1), le chapitre 2 présente les objectifs de l'évaluation et l'approche méthodologique privilégiée. Viennent ensuite la description et une première analyse des cinq étapes du dispositif (chapitre 3) et des résultats relatifs aux principes d'action du développement des communautés (chapitre 4). Le chapitre 5 met en lumière les principaux constats et recommandations entourant l'ensemble de la démarche.

    L'expérimentation de la démarche de caractérisation des communautés locales en Chaudière-...

  • August-29-12

    Promoting safety and preventing crime through a setting-oriented approach requires a structured procedure for planning the various activities to be carried out. The procedure involves mobilizing the population and intersectoral partners, making safety diagnoses and drawing up action plans. The Safety Diagnosis Tool Kit for Local Communities was prepared to assist with this procedure. It comprises several tools, including the Safety Diagnosis Handbook and six methodology guides. The document Turning Safety Diagnoses Into Action Plans: A Guide for Local Communities was prepared in addition to the tool kit, to facilitate the process of translating diagnoses into effective action plans.

    The present document, Guide to Analyzing Crime Using Official Statistics – 2nd edition, is one...

  • August-29-12

    In making safety diagnoses, it is sometimes useful to estimate or quantify certain behaviours or environmental features through direct observation of life settings. This observation method makes it possible to gather and analyze information on a series of problem safety situations related to the characteristics or behaviour of individuals (incivility) or to certain characteristics of the physical environment (disorder). Generally speaking, it requires the use of an observation log for entering information on the safety situations under study.

    Even though it is difficult to foresee all of the problem safety situations that can arise in life settings, we have singled out a certain number on the basis of the scientific literature. All of these situations10 are included in the...

  • August-29-12

    Like discussion groups, direct observation and literature reviews, semi-structured interviews can be used to gather qualitative information. Interviews of this type are suited to working with small samples and are effective for studying specific situations or for supplementing and validating information derived from other sources used for making safety diagnoses. In addition, since they provide access to perceptions and opinions, they are useful for gaining insight into problems that are not perceptible immediately or are more difficult to observe, but that nonetheless cause concern in certain areas or in certain segments of the population.

    During safety diagnoses, semi-structured interviews should be used to explore crime and safety problems perceived by representatives of the...

  • August-29-12

    Promoting safety and preventing crime through a setting-oriented approach requires a structured procedure for planning the various activities to be carried out. The procedure involves mobilizing the population and intersectoral partners, making safety diagnoses and drawing up action plans. The Safety Diagnosis Tool Kit for Local Communities was prepared to assist with this procedure. It comprises several tools, including the Safety Diagnosis Handbook and six methodology guides. The document Turning Safety Diagnoses Into Action Plans: A Guide for Local Communities was prepared in addition to the tool kit, to facilitate the process of translating diagnoses into effective action plans.

    To make sound decisions as to what should be done to improve safety and prevent crime in a...

  • August-29-12

    A focus group is a group discussion led by a facilitator. Participants are asked to share their thoughts on a particular topic, based on their personal opinions and experience. They are also encouraged to react to the views expressed by other participants and to say where they stand in relation to those views.

    In the model proposed in this guide, focus group participants are selected on the basis of criteria that ensure the life setting under study is well represented. This approach guarantees that the groups provide a wide range of viewpoints and perceptions, and can thus help to shed light on the different opinions and degree of consensus that exist on a given topic, such as the feeling of safety in a regional county municipality (RCM) or a municipality. In safety diagnoses,...

  • August-29-12

    Generally speaking, surveys are used to obtain three main types of information:

    • information on the characteristics of individuals, including their personal characteristics (age, marital status, level of education, etc.), behaviour (amount of time spent doing certain activities, etc.) and living environment (workplace, housing, etc.);
    • information on the opinions of individuals (how safe or unsafe they feel, what they think about certain facts, ideas, programs or events, etc.);
    • information on their past personal experiences (victimization, etc.).

    The data gathered during a survey can be grouped and analyzed to detect trends or associations, such as whether certain groups within a population (e.g. the members of a particular age group, men or...

  • August-29-12

    To do a safety diagnosis for a particular life setting, you have to get to know the setting. You will thus obtain a good understanding of its specific characteristics, as well a frame of reference for data collection activities. The present guide describes the main steps involved in developing a life setting’s general portrait.

    Although many parameters can be used to characterize a life setting, some warrant special attention in a process aimed at improving safety or preventing crime; for example, the setting’s geographic, human and economic characteristics and some of its physical characteristics pertaining to housing. Gaining insight into these characteristics will enable you to:

    • share in general knowledge about the life setting under study;
    • clearly...
  • January-11-12

    L’enquête par questionnaire permet principalement d’obtenir trois types d’information :

    • des renseignements sur les caractéristiques des individus, qui peuvent concerner des aspects personnels (âge, état civil, niveau de scolarité, etc.), des comportements (par exemple, combien de temps ils consacrent à telle ou telle activité) ou l’environnement dans lequel ils vivent (milieu de travail, caractéristiques du logement, etc.) ;
    • des données sur les opinions des individus, c’est-à-dire leurs perceptions par rapport à leur sentiment de sécurité ou d’insécurité et par rapport à certains faits, idées, programmes ou événements survenus ;
    • des renseignements sur les expériences vécues dans le passé (victimation, etc.).

    Les données recueillies peuvent...

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