This literature review examines the effects of traffic calming in urban environments on four health determinants, namely:
- The number and severity of road collisions,
- Air quality,
- Environmental noise, and
- Physical activity associated with active transportation.
Traffic calming is a manner of intervening in the built environment that appears to offer significant potential as a way to improve population health, and the evaluative literature is sufficiently abundant to require a literature review. This review will also facilitate comparison of the two approaches to traffic calming: the black-spots approach and the area-wide approach.