Cardiovascular disease and cancer in women with accreta and retained placenta: a longitudinal cohort study
PURPOSE: The association between placental detachment disorders and risk of chronic disease is unclear. We determined the association of placenta accreta and retained placenta with risk of future maternal cardiovascular disease and cancer. METHODS: We tracked a longitudinal cohort of 541,051 pregnant women over a period of 13 years (2006-2019) in Quebec, Canada. The main exposure measures were placenta accreta and retained placenta in any pregnancy. Outcomes included future hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease and cancer. Using Cox regression models adjusted for maternal characteristics, we estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of accreta and retained placenta with cardiovascular disease and cancer at 13 years. RESULTS: The incidence of cardiovascular hospitalization was 21.2 per 10,000 person-years for accreta and 23.4 per 10,000 for retained placenta with postpartum hemorrhage, compared with 20.3 per 10,000 for neither placental disorder. Cancer incidence followed a similar pattern, with rates highest for retained placenta with hemorrhage. Retained placenta with hemorrhage was associated with 1.19 times the risk of cardiovascular disease (95% CI 1.03-1.38) and 1.27 times the risk of cancer (95% CI 1.06-1.53). Retained placenta with hemorrhage was associated with heart failure (HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.04-3.27), cardiomyopathy (HR 1.88, 95% CI 1.03-3.43), and cervical cancer (HR 2.03, 95% CI 1.17-3.52). Accreta and retained placenta without hemorrhage were not associated with these outcomes. CONCLUSION: Retained placenta with hemorrhage may be a risk marker for cardiovascular disease and certain cancers later in life.