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  • September-13-18

    This summary, produced in English and in French by the National Collaborating Centre for Healthy Public Policy (NCCHPP), was originally intended to provide francophone readers with easy access to the key information from the original published article, a literature review of the state of ethics education in schools of public health. We have also produced this English-language version for those who wish a short summary of the findings from the literature review. The authors of the review are part of a research team at the École de santé publique de l’Université de Montréal (the School of Public Health at the University of Montréal) with whom the NCCHPP has partnered on different aspects of a larger project of which this is a part.

    To learn more, visit the website of the National...

  • August-23-18
    • Each year in Québec, approximately 174 people commit suicide by drug overdose, of which at least 15 are the result of over-the-counter (OTC) drug overdoses.
    • A substantial number of suicides and suicide attempts by overdose involve more than one substance.
    • The number of suicides by OTC medication is under-estimated, since in cases where several drugs have been ingested, only the substance that is presumed to have caused the death is considered when determining the most likely cause of death.
    • Acetaminophen is by far the most common drug involved in intentional OTC drug overdoses, followed by salicylates, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, and antihistamines. Depending on the ingested drug and dose, these medications can have serious adverse health...
  • August-13-18
    • Since August 2004, Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has undergone ongoing surveillance in all Quebec hospitals with more than 1,000 admissions annually. The surveillance has monitored the evolution of CDAD levels in health care facilities and confirmed their decrease. From an average of 9.1 cases/10,000 patient days in 2005-2006, the average rate has dropped to 4.6 cases/10,000 patient days in 2016-2017 (SPIN, 2017).
    • Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection is nonetheless one of the main causes of nosocomial infectious diarrhea in Quebec health care facilities. Although the majority of cases occur in hospitals, some cases have been identified in residential and long-term care facilities and, based on epidemiological...
  • August-13-18
    • Candida auris is an emerging microorganism that belongs to the yeast category. Increasingly, it is being found as a pathogen causing nosocomial fungal infections.
    • First identified in Japan in 2009 in a sample from a patient’s auditory canal (Satoh et al., 2009; ECDC, 2016; Rock, 2017), it has since been identified in up to 17 countries, spread across at least 5 continents: Asia, Europe, Africa and the Americas (CDC, 2017a; Schwartz and Hammond, 2017).
    • C. auris, with a clonal strain, has caused outbreaks in many health care facilities, including some involving a large number of colonized or infected patients.
    • Some particular characteristics of Candida auris are making world experts concerned about its...
  • August-13-18

    The frequency of adverse events (incidents and accidents) related to medical device reprocessing (MDR) is a concern for health care services. By definition, an incident means that a medical device breaches a recognized standard for MDR without having been used on a patient. An accident refers to any use on a patient of a medical device which does not meet a recognized standard for MDR, with that use potentially affecting the patient’s health status (INSPQ, 2014).

    This report describes the results of monitoring incidents and accidents related to MDR in Quebec between April 1, 2016 and March 31, 2017. Over this year, a total of 3,476 adverse events related to MDR were reported as of June 15, 2017. Of those, 2,933 (84%) were incidents and 543 (16%) were accidents, involving a...

  • August-13-18

    In Québec, head injuries are a major cause of death and hospital admissions among cyclists.

    Helmets are very effective for preventing head injuries in all cyclists, whether falling off a bike or having a collision with a motor vehicle.

    Promotion campaigns targeting children under 18 are effective for increasing use of bike helmets, especially when they are community-wide and accompanied by a free helmet distribution program.

    In Québec, bike helmet use has increased considerably since 2010, reaching an average of 53% in 2014. In some regions, this proportion was around 70%, which is close to the maximum 80% achievable with a law making it mandatory to wear a bicycle helmet. Seventy-eight percent of children aged 5-9 years were wearing helmets.

    Studies on...

  • August-13-18
    • Health-related stigmatization is a social process whereby negative social representations of certain groups of individuals, who are labelled based on health problems considered preventable or under their control, are built or reinforced.
    • Behaviours, lifestyles, living conditions or other personal characteristics are attached to a moral evaluation referring to “good” or “bad” diseases, and “good” or “bad” patients. These people are considered responsible and blamed for the risk to their health and, if applicable, for the risk to which others are exposed. These people find their identities damaged and in extreme cases, reduced to the health problem or characteristic. Whether actual, expected or perceived, stigmatization vilifies people and groups; it results in or worsens...
  • August-13-18
    • In Québec like elsewhere, diseases transmitted from animals to humans (zoonoses), representing about 60% of communicable diseases to humans, are emerging. Zoonoses complex dynamic can be influenced by climate changes. To address this complexity, Québec’s Observatory on zoonoses and climate change adaptation initiated in 2015 a prioritization approach of zoonoses to document Québec’s situation progression to foresee emerging issues. This work also allowed a better identification of challenges and knowledge gaps specifics to prioritized zoonoses, which can now serve as a tool to orient and improve research activities, as well as surveillance, prevention and control of zoonoses.
    • Twelve zoonoses were prioritized: foodborne botulism in Nunavik, campylobacteriosis,...
  • August-13-18
    • Greening is taking place in cities, primarily to adapt to climate change and its effects, like heat islands. This literature review describes the impacts of green spaces on health. Some observations are also put forward for optimal green space use and design.
    • Green spaces are beneficial for physical health, particularly because they provide opportunities for physical activity. Green spaces might also have positive effects for reducing numbers of obese and overweight people, linked to morbidity. Lastly, neighbourhood green spaces reduce the mortality associated with certain diseases.
    • Green spaces also provide benefits for mental health, such as reducing symptoms of depression and reducing stress. They can have positive effects on mental well-being, feeling of...
  • August-13-18

    Whether for recreation or transportation, safe bike-riding is the result of interactions between individuals’ and environments’ characteristics, including natural elements, as well as man-made and developed elements. This TOPO’s main objective is to present the results of scientific writings concerning the association between the man-made environment, bike-riding and cyclist safety.

    Some elements of the man-made environment promote safe bike-riding and thereby contribute to maximizing the physical activity of bike-riding for transportation and recreation, while minimizing the risk of cyclist injuries. These elements and interventions are:

    • Reducing the speed and volume of motorized traffic using various traffic-calming measures;
    • Physically separating...
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